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Peel off paper backing, then position applique pieces on project webbing side down , layering the pieces as indicated on the placement guide. When happy with the arrangement, place a press cloth over the design, then fuse in place with an iron. Note: Iron temperature and fusing time will depend of the type of fabric and fusible webbing you are using. Please refer to the instructions that come with your fusible webbing for more details. If you wish to stitch around the edges of the applique, cut a piece of stabiliser about inches wider all around than the applique, and position it on the wrong side of your fabric, underneath the applique.

This is my trusty machine.

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It is basic, non-computerised, uncomplicated and does a great zigzag stitch! Stitch around the perimeter of your applique pieces using a tight zigzag stitch on your sewing machine, or alternatively, stitch by hand using a blanket stitch. Change your thread colour as you go to match or contrast if you like with each applique piece. Dylon Ocean Blue Dye Pod g.

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How To: Traditional Boro Clothes Mending

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Tulip Fabric Paint Metallic White 37ml. Dylon Sea Salt g. Tulip Fabric Paint Metallic Violet 37ml. Tulip Fabric Paint Puffy Green 37ml. Dylon Dusty Violet Dye Pod g. Tulip Fabric Paint Light Pink 37ml. Sewing provided a refuge of traditional ideas about women in an age of dramatic change.

This chapter will explore how sewing was understood to be a key aspect of women's duties and roles. Sewing was for many a routine component of a household economy, usually but not always cheaper than buying items ready-made. Many women of a variety of backgrounds expected to make at least some clothing for themselves and family members. Sewing represented the home, women's conventional role of caring for her family, and was associated with concepts of thrift, discipline, domestic production, even sexual morality.

These values intersect with other issues of identity and cultural understanding. What can we learn from looking carefully at this routine and often invisible work? What exactly does it mean to be "thrifty" or to provide a "good home" and to whom? Meanwhile, cultural meanings are not static.

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This chapter will also examine the reasons why women sewed clothing for themselves and their families even as items became increasingly affordable and more women worked outside the home. As sewing became less of a basic economic function, how did it persist as a cultural behavior?

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Did the gendered assumptions surrounding sewing shift along with the expectations and experiences of the women and girls who were taught — or not taught — to sew? Because sewing offers a distillation of ideas about women's role in the family and home, it also illuminates class, ethnic, and racial distinctions. Because sewing was an embodiment of gender roles, it could also serve to propagate social hierarchies. Sewing could be used to express personal and group identities, but it could also reinforce social divisions. Home dressmaking was a task shared by working- and middle-class women, black and white, native-born and immigrant.

The same skills could be used for different purposes according to one's economic, cultural, and geographical circumstances.

Sewing fulfilled white, middle-class ideals of domesticity and provided African Americans and working-class women a way to dress "respectably. In other ways, it served to underscore distinctions between them and enforce social and racial hierarchies. For most of the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century, most women had few choices other than to sew at home.

Factory-made men's clothing was available for purchase starting in the mid-nineteenth century, but the women's ready-to-wear industry took longer to gain a foothold. In , women's styles accounted for only 25 percent of factory-made clothing. It was cheaper to make your own clothes, and I presume that had something to do with it, but ready-made clothes were not available.

An alternative of course was to engage a dressmaker. Those with less to spend might have someone make just their best dresses or pay a dressmaker to cut out a garment — often the most difficult and potentially costly part of the process — which the client would sew together at home.

Gabrielle Josephine Crofton, a young woman in Illinois, had her better dresses made by a dressmaker but made her own nightdresses. Until the ready-wear industry grew to the point where desirable clothes were available at low prices, many middle-class and most working-class women had little choice but to sew the majority of the clothing they and their families needed.

During the early twentieth century, changes in production methods, cheap immigrant labor, and other structural changes made ready-made clothing more affordable. By the s, a competitive and increasingly mechanized garment industry offered a wide range of prices, and looser, less fitted styles fit well off the rack. Ready-to-wear blouses, skirts, and dresses became increasingly popular and fewer women sewed.

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A survey of department stores from to showed that until , fabric sales kept pace with ready-made clothing, but after , the ready-mades overtook fabric. During and despite this shift, many women continued to sew. One small study of families in Pennsylvania in the early s found that at least half made "a few" garments at home. Although the women in the classic Middletown study may have bought an increasingly large proportion of their family's clothing, they continued to sew.

About two-thirds of the "working class" women and three-quarters of the "business class" women spent up to six hours a week sewing and mending. The decision of whether to sew or purchase clothing was part of a complex arithmetic of time, energy, expense, and skills. Working women, the ones most likely to need to sew for economic reasons, often felt the pinch of other demands on their time and a lack of sewing education. Up to a third of the respondents to one survey bought clothing because they were "unable to make clothes at home. Twenty-five-year-old Lucy Cleaver, interviewed by members of the National Consumers League in , worked long hours in a department store and saved money by walking to work and doing her own washing.

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However, "as she could not spend any further energy in sewing, she bought cheap ready-made clothes. At times, it simply wasn't worth buying fabric and spending the time to sew. Constance W. Simons, a woman who received numerous hand-me-downs from her sister, justified her purchase of a skirt:. Likewise, Margorie Durand, who grew up in Montana during the s, recalled that while her mother made the bulk of the family's wardrobe, she would order things from mail-order catalogs when the choices were cheaper or better than what her mother might make herself.

Like Simons, Durand's mother sewed a great deal but recognized that it was a better use of time and money to buy the occasional item. For example, Florence Epstein recalled that her mother just "wasn't inclined to sew. In addition to time pressures, skills, financial calculations, and desire, whether not a woman sewed at home was also a factor of household power relations. In a family where a woman did not earn wages, whether to sew was often a question of a man's money versus a woman's time.

Judging by the proliferation of agricultural extension services, school sewing curricula, adult classes, pattern companies, and magazine articles and guidebooks, even into the s, a substantial proportion of American women chose to sew. Many did so for practical reasons — a home seamstress could afford a higher quality fabric if she did the work herself or had little access to ready-made clothing — but sewing was also tightly bound to ideas of motherhood, community, domesticity, and femininity.

The remainder of this chapter will examine why women sewed, while exploring the cultural resonance of the popularity of a traditional "feminine" skill. With "fancy imported printed percale" costing about ten cents a yard, plus a five-cent pattern and some trimmings all available from the Sears catalog , a homemade dress required less than a dollar's outlay. If making a dress at home was an outright savings, it could also prove to be a better value over time.

Many women argued that by sewing at home, they could afford higher quality fabrics and their garments would last longer than store-bought items. Jane Dunn, who grew up in New Jersey in the s and '20s, recalled that "we all felt it was better to have one thing of high quality rather than more than one of cheap quality.

By purchasing the good quality fabric and making it at home we achieved that goal. In the early twentieth century, as it had been for long before then, home dressmaking was usually more economical than purchasing clothing.