Received Jan 27; Accepted Mar This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials ijmss Abstract Polyphenol compositions and concentrations in skins and seeds of five muscadine grapes cv. Introduction Muscadinia rotundifolia Michx. Results 2. Table 1 Total phenolic content TPC in skins and seeds of five muscadine grapes cultivated in three different regions. Open in a separate window. Polyphenol Composition and Accumulation 2. Ellagic Acids and Precursors Profiles Ellagic acids ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins and their precursors gallic acid derivatives were the chief polyphenol compounds identified in muscadine skins and seeds Table 2.
Table 2 Different categories of polyphenol contents in skins and seeds of five muscadine grapes cultivated in three different regions. Figure 1. Flavonols Profiles Flavonols were the second-highest polyphenol in terms of content detected in muscadine skins in our study, whereas their contents in seeds were relatively low Table 2. Figure 2.
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Benzoic Acid Profiles There were great differences of benzoic acids contents among the muscadine grapes growing in the three regions Table 2. Figure 3. Stilbenes and Cinnamon Acids Profiles The stilbene contents in the five muscadine skins ranging from 0 to 0. Principal Component Analysis PCA Fifty-four evaluation parameters Table 3 in all the samples studied were subjected to principal component analysis PCA , in order to separate grapes according to their polyphenol characteristics. Figure 4. Table 3 The contribution scores of 54 evaluation parameters from different groups of muscadine skins and seeds based on principal components analysis PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis HCA in the season.
Discussion The chemical diversity of grapes is mostly affected by secondary metabolites represented by different phytochemical groups such as polyphenols, terpenoids, and tannins, among others, which have been attracted research interest owing to their biological activity [ 26 ]. Materials and Methods 4. Grape Materials Fruits of five fully ripened muscadine grape cultivars red cv. Figure 5. The three region distribution of muscadine grapes used in this study.
Extraction and Determination of Polyphenol in Muscadine Grapes 4. Preparation of Berries Extraction Freeze-dried grape seeds were crushed and then defatted as previously reported [ 11 , 39 ]. Extraction of Polyphenols in Muscadine Grapes Polyphenol compounds were extracted from skins and seeds as previously reported in our laboratory [ 11 , 39 ]. Conclusions Ellagic acids and precursors were the characteristic polyphenols detected in muscadine grapes.
Supplementary Materials Supplementary materials can be found at www.
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Click here for additional data file. Author Contributions Zheng Wei conceived and designed the experiments, and carried out the experimental analyses, data interpretation and manuscript writing together with Jianming Luo; Wenfeng Guo contributed to the statistical analysis and focused on the date interpretation of PCA and HCA; Yu Huang and Huan Guan helped in sample collection, pretreatment and performed the qualitative analysis of muscadine grape polyphenol; and Yali Zhang, Changmou Xu and Jiang Lu gave their valuable support in the critical revision of the manuscript and conceptual content.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1.
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